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Common Feed Oil Sources Used In Poultry Feed In South Asia Region

Common Feed Oil Sources Used In Poultry Feed In South Asia Region

The global vegetable oil and animal fat production is around 160 million metric tons per year. It is mainly used for food, industrial products, biodiesel and animal feeds. Feed oils are generally crude or inferior quality, by-products (oil refining, abattoir rendering) or recovered/recycled oil.

Palm Oil & By-Products

Palm oil is the world's number 1 edible oil by volume (49 million metric tons/year). It is a major feed oil in the region. It's products include:

  • Crude palm oil (CPO)

  • Refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palm oil

  • Palm olein

  • Acid oils

    • Palm acid oil (PAO)

    • Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) 

Palm olein and palm stearin is produced by fractionation of palm oil. Palm olein has a lower melting point compared to palm oil while palm stearin has a higher melting point compared to palm oil. Palm olein has a higher unsaturated to saturated (U:S) ratio compared to palm oil. Hence, it has a higher ME value.

Acids oil are by products of edible oil refining. The two palm acid oil types are:

  • Palm acid oil (PAO)

    • Typically 50% free fatty acid (FFA)​

  • Palm Fatty acid distillate (PFAD)​

    • Typically 70% FFA​

Acids oils usually have lower ME values due to the high FFA & low U:S ratio​

ME Values Of Palm Oil Products Calculated Using Wiseman Equations

Rice Bran Oil

World rice production is about 700 million metric tons per year. 

  • = 60 - 70 million metric ton rice bran per year

  • = at least 10 million metric ton rice bran oil

Oil extracted from less than 10% of rice bran

Global rice bran oil supply 1.0 - 1.5 million metric tons per year

India is the main rice bran oil producer in South Asia, with approximately 480,000 metric tons in 2001. Rice bran oil is highly unsaturated, therefore it has a high ME value.

ME Values of Rice Bran Oil Calculated Using Wiseman Equations

Palm Kernel & Coconut Oils

Global production:

  • Palm kernel 5.2 million metric tons per year

  • Coconut 3.9 million metric tons per year

Both oils are extremely saturated, but the predominant fatty acid is lauric (C12:0)​. The U:S ratio is about 2.4 for Wiseman ME calculation. Palm kernel and coconut oils have similar ME, approximately 7,700 kcal/kg for young bird while 8,800 kcal/kg for older birds.

Animal Tallow

Global production of animal tallow is around 9 million metric tons per year. Feed grade ( FFA < 15%) is commonly used in broiler feeds in countries with meat industries. Cattle and sheep tallow have low ME (highly saturated) while pig & poultry tallow have higher ME (less saturated).

Other Oils

Other oils include:

  • Soyabean oil

    • World's number 2 edible oil with a production of approximately 42 million metric tons per year​

    • It is high in linoleic acid content

    • High ME value for broilers

    • Suitable & safe for broiler feeds

  • Fish oil​

    • Not usually economic for broiler feed​

    • High content of long chain polyunsaturated FAs

    • Prone to oxidation, need antioxidant to minimise toxic oxidation products, loss of ME & 'fishy' taint

    • High ME for broilers

  • Rapeseed, mustard & canola oils

    • Erucic acid reduces feed intake & growth​

    • Canola oil safe for broilers (erucic acid < 2%)

    • Rapeseed & mustard oils risky (erucic acid typically 30 - 50 % in mustard oils)

    • Highly unsaturated, high ME for broilers

  • Cottonseed oil

    • Contains the anti-nutritional factors cyclopropenoid FAs & residual gossypol​

    • Broilers tolerant of above ANFs

    • Ok for broilers but high risk for breeders & layers

Oil Blends

Blends may include several different oil types and perhaps byproducts (such as acid oils). The composition of blends may be variable, therefore the composition must be known to predict the ME value from Wiseman equation.

Recovered Oils

Recovered or recycled oils are commonly used in animal feeds. They are typically sourced from spent oils from food frying. The product names include RVO ('recovered vegetable oil'), 'yellow grease' and 'restaurant grease'. The effects of heating on oil quality makes it hard to assess the quality of it. It may be a risk to use it for broiler feeds.

Other Products

Other products include glycerin (also known as glycerol). Glycerin is a by-product of soap and biodiesel. It is typically about 90% glycerol and 10 % water. ME of a typical glycerin is about 3,400 kcal/kg. There are also commercial fat powder products

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